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Alonso, M. et al. 2012. Pyrethroids: A new threat to marine mammals? Environment International 47 (2012) 99–106.

Bodkin, J., B. Ballachey, H. Coletti, G. Esslinger, K. Kloecker, S. Rice, J. Reed, D. Monson. 2012. Long-term effects of the ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill: sea otter foraging in the intertidal as a pathway of exposure to lingering oil. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 447: 273–287 (2012).

Bowen, L., et al. 2012. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health. Molecular Ecology Resources (2012) 12, 67–74.

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Larson, S., et al. 2012. Genetic Diversity and Population Parameters of Sea Otters, Enhydra lutris, before Fur Trade Extirpation from 1741–1911. PLoS ONE March 2012, Volume 7 Issue 3, e32205.

Maldini, D., et al. 2012. Patterns of sea otter haul-out behavior in a California tidal estuary in relation to environmental variables. Northwestern Naturalist, Spring 2012, 93:67–78.

Tinker, M.T., et al. 2012. Structure and mechanism of diet specialisation: testing models of individual variation in resource use with sea otters. Ecology Letters, (2012) 15: 475–483.

Tseng, M. 2012. Mustelid Herpesvirus-2, a Novel Herpes Infection in Northern Sea Otters (Enhydra Lutris Kenyoni). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 48(1), 2012, pp. 181–185.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. Southern Sea Otter stock assessment report.

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Gilkinson, A. 2011. Habitat associations of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in a soft and mixed-sediment benthos in Alaska. Journal of Mammalogy, 92(6):1278–1286, 2011.

Goldstein, T., et al. 2011. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra Lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 47(3), 2011, pp. 579–592.

Harris, K.A., et al. 2011. Hydrocarbon concentrations and patterns in free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra Lutris) from British Columbia, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 30, No. 10, pp. 2184–2193, 2011.

Harris, K.A., et al. 2011. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters. Environmental Pollution 159 (2011) 2665-2674.

Hatfield, B., J. Ames, J. Estes, M.T. Tinker, A. Johnson, M. Staedler, M. Harris. 2011. Sea otter mortality in fish and shellfish traps: estimating potential impacts and exploring possible solutions. Endangered Species Research 13: 219–229 (2011).

Hatfield, B., J. Ames, J. Estes, M.T. Tinker, A. Johnson, M. Staedler, M. Harris. 2011. Sea otter mortality in fish and shellfish traps: estimating potential impacts and exploring possible solutions (supplement no13). Endangered Species Research 13: 219–229 (2011).

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Monson, D.H., et al. 2011. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population ‘‘sink’’ for sea otters in Alaska? Ecological Applications, 21(8), 2011, pp. 2917–2932.

Righton, A.L., et al. 2011. Serumvitamin A conentrations in captive sea otters (Enhydra Lutris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 42(1): 124–127, 2011.

St. Leger, J.A., et al. 2011. Vitamin A deficiency and hepatic retinol levels in sea otters, Enhydra Lutris. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 42(1): 98–104, 2011.

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Harris, H.S. 2010. Lesions and Behavior Associated with Forced Copulation of Juvenile Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) by Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Aquatic Mammals 2010, 36(4), 219-229.

Harwell, M.A., et al. 2010. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 16: 727–761, 2010.

Levin, M., et al. 2010. Immunomodulatory effects upon in vitro exposure of California sea lion and sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 46(2), 2010, pp. 541–550.

Maldini, D., et al. 2010. Southern sea otter diet in a soft sediment community. Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology, Vol 3, No 1, 2010, 27-36.

Miller, M.A., et al. 2010. A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: Mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection. Veterinary Parasitology 172 (2010) 183–194.

Miller, M.A., et al. 2010. Evidence for a Novel Marine Harmful Algal Bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) Transfer from Land to Sea Otters. PLoS ONE September 2010, Volume 5, Issue 9, e12576.

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Tiedeken, J.A., et al. 2010. Zebrafish Seizure Model Identifies p,p´-DDE as the Dominant Contaminant of Fetal California Sea Lions That Accounts for Synergistic Activity with Domoic Acid. Environmental Health Perspectives, volume 118, number 4, April 2010, 545-551.

Vianna, J.A., et al. 2010. Phylogeography of the Marine Otter (Lontra felina): Historical and Contemporary Factors Determining Its Distribution. Journal of Heredity 2010:101(6):676–689.

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Dau, B.K., et al. 2009. Fishing gear related injuries in California marine wildlife. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45(2), 2009, pp 355-362.

Estes, J. A., et al. 2009. Causes and consequences of marine mammal population declines in southwest Alaska: a food-web perspective. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society (2009) 364, 1647-1658, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0231.

Forman, D, et al. 2009.  The sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii in British marine mammals. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol 104(2): 296-298, March 2009.

Hart, K., V. Gill, K. Kannan. Temporal Trends (1992-2007) of Perflourinated Chemicals in Northern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from South-Central Alaska. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol (2009) 56:607–614 DOI 10.1007/s00244-008-9242-2.

Imai, D., et al. 2009. Characterization of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from southern sea otters (Enhydra Lutris Nereis) stranded along the California Coast. Vetrinary Microbiology 136 (2009) 378-381.

Johnson, C.K., et al. 2009. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system.  PNAS Early edition. vol. 106  no. 7  2247.

Kretschmer, E., et al. 2009. Characterization of eight microsatellite loci in Sea Otter, Enhydra Lutris, and cross-species amplification in other Mustelidae. Conservation Genetics (2009) 10:775–777 DOI 10.1007/s10592-008-9660-8.

Laidre, K., R. Jameson, et al. 2009. Spatial habitat use patterns of sea otters in coastal Washington. Journal of Marine Mammalogy, 90(4):906-917.

Miller, M.A., et al. 2009. Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of Sarcocystis neurona tissue cysts in the central nervous system of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). International Journal of Parasitology. 39 (2009) 1363-1372.

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Smith, C., I. Giladi, Y. Lee. 2009. A reanalysis of competing hypotheses for the spread of the California sea otter.  Ecology Magazine by the Ecological Society of America, 90(9), pp 2503-2512.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2009.  Spotlight species action plan 2010-2014.

Aguilar, A., D.A. Jessup, J. Estes, J.C. Garza. 2008. The distribution of nuclear generation variation and historical demography of sea otters. The Zoological Society of London. 11 (2008) 35-45.

Biela, V., et al., 2008. Evaluating Cementum to Determine Past Reproduction in Northern Sea Otters. The Journal of Wildlife Management 72(3): 618-624; 2008.

Dubey, J.P. 2008. The History of Toxoplasma gondii – The First 100 Years. J. EUKARYOT. MICROBIOL., 55, NO. 6, NOVEMBER–DECEMBER 2008.

Gregr, E., et al. 2008. Estimating carrying capacity for sea otters in British Columbia. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(2): 382-388.

Kannan, K. et al. 2008. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California,Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia). Journal of Environmental Monitoring, March 2008.

Kannan, K., E. Perrotta, 2008. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in livers of California sea otters. Chemosphere 71. 649-655, 2008.

Miller, M. et al. 2008. Transplacental toxoplasmosis in a wild southern sea otter. Veterinary Parasitology 153, 12-18; 2008.

Miller, M. et al. 2008. Type X Toxoplasma gondii in a wild mussel and terrestrial carnivores from coastal California: New Linkages between terrestrial mammals, runoff and toxoplasmosis of sea otters.  ScienceDirect International Journal for Parasitology 38(2008) 1319-1328.

Mori, C., et al. 2008. Effects of organochlorines, individually and in mixtures, on B-cell proliferation on marine mammals and mice. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 71: 266-275.

Murata, S. et al. 2008. Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA) and Kamchatka (Russia). Marine Pollution Bulletin 56, 2008. p.641-649

Sundar, N., et al. 2008. Genetic diversity among sea otter isolates of Toxoplasma gondii. Veterinary Parasitology. 151: 125-132.

Tinker, M.T., et al. 2008. Food limitation leads to behavioral diversification and dietary specialization in sea otters. PNAS. (105)2: 560-565.

Bodkin, J., D. Monson, G.S. Esslinger. 2007. Activity budgets derived from time-depth recorders in a diving mammal. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(6): 2034-2044.

Boehm. P., D. Page, J. Neff, C.B. Johnson. 2007. Potential for sea otter exposure to remnants of buried oil from the exxon valdez spill. Environmental Science Technology.  41 (2007): 6860-6867.

Bowen, E., F. Riva, C. Mohr, B. Aldridge, J. Schwartz, A.K. Miles, and J.L. Stott. 2007. Differential gene expression induced by exposure of captive mink to fuel oil: a model for the sea otter. EcoHealth. 4(2007): 298-309.

Carter, S.K., G. VanBlaircom, B.L. Allen. 2007. Testing the generality of the trophic cascade paradigm for sea otters: a case study with kelp forests in northern Washington, USA. Hydrobiologia. 579(2007): 233-249.

Gilkonson, A., et al. 2007. Photo-identification of otters using nose scars. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 71(6): 2045-2051.

Jessup, D. et al. Sea otters in a dirty ocean.  JAVMA, 231 (11), December 1, 2007 1648-1652.

Laidre, K., R. Jameson. 2007. Foraging patterns and prey selection in an increasing and expanding sea otter population. Journal of Mammalogy 87(4):799-807.

Levin, M. , H. Leibrecht, C. Mori, D. Jessup, S. De Guise. 2007. Immunomodulatory effects of organochlorine mixtures upon in vitro exposure of peripheral blood leukocytes differ between free-ranging and captive southern sea otters. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 119(2007): 269-277.

Miller, M.A., E. Dodd, M. Ziccardi, D. Jessup, D. Crane, C. Dominik, R. Spies, D. Hardin. 2007. Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra Lutris Nereis): Patterns With Respect To Environmental Risk Factors and Major Causes of Mortality.

Nicholson, T., K. Mayer, M. Staedler, A.B. Johnson. 2007. Effects of rearing methods on survival of juvenile free-ranging southern sea otters.  Biological Conservation 138 (2007): 313-320.

Thomas, N.J., J.P. Dubey, D.S. Lindsay, R.A. Cole, C.U. Meteyer. 2007. Protozoal Meningoencephelatis in Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris): a Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Naturally Occurring Cases. Journal of Comparative Pathology 137:102-121.

Yeates, L., T. Williams, T.L. Fink. 2007. Diving and foraging of the smallest marine mammal, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Journal of Experimental Biology 210:1960-1970.

Kannan, K., E. Perrotta, N.J. Thomas. 2006. Association between perfluorinated compounds and pathological conditions in southern sea otters. Environmental Science Technology. 40(2006): 4943-4948.

Mori, C., B. Morsey, M. Levin, P.R. Nambiar, S. De Guise. 2006. Immunomodulatory effects of in vitro exposure to organochlorines on t-cell proliferation in marine mammals and mice. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 69:283–302.

Reisewitz, S.E.,  J A. Estes, A., Simenstad, C. 2006. Indirect food web interactions: sea otters and kelp forest fishes in the Aleutian archipelago. Oecologia (2006) 146: 623–631. DOI 10.1007/s00442-005-0230-1.



Conrad, P.A., M.A. Miller, C. Kreudera, E.R. Jamesd, J. Mazeta, H. Dabritza, D.A. Jessup, F. Gulland, M.E. Grigg. 2005. Transmission of Toxoplasma: Clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment. International Journal for Parasitology 35 (2005) 1155–1168.

Estes, J., Lindberg, D., Wray, C. 2005. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): patterns and implications. Paleobiology. 31(4): 591-606.

Bentall, G.B. 2005.  Morphological and behavioral correlates of population status in the southern sea otter, Enhydra Lutris Nereis: A comparative study between central California and San Nicolas Island. M.A. Thesis, University of California Santa Cruz.

Hattori, K., Kawabe, I., Mizuno, A., Ohtaishi, N. History and status of sea otters, Enhydra lutris along the coast of Hokkaido, Japan. 2005. Mammal Study. 30:41-51.

Miller, W.A., et al. 2005. Clams (Corbicula fluminea) as bioindicators of fecal contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in freshwater ecosystems in California. International Journal for Parasitology 35 (2005) 673–684.

Miller, W.A., Gardner, I.A., Atwill, E.R., Leutenegger, C.M., Miller, M.A., Hedrick, R.P., Melli. A.C., Barnes, N.M., Conrad, P.A. 2005. Evaluation of methods for improved detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus). Journal of Microbiological Methods.

Miller, W.A, et al. 2005. New genotypes and factors associated with Cryptosporidium detection in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast. International Journal for Parasitology 35 (2005) 1103–1113.

Pearson, H., D. Randall. 2005. Behavior of Territorial Male Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Aquatic Mammals 2005, 31 31(2), 226-233.

Schwartz, J. et al. 2005. The development of methods for immunophenotypic and lymphocyte function analyzes for assessment of Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) health. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 104:1-14.

Bodkin, J., G. Esslinger, D. Monson. 2004. Foraging depths of sea otters and implications to coastal marine communities. Marine Mammal Science 20(2): 305-321.

Gerber, L. et al. 2004. Mortality sensitivity in life-stage simulation analysis: A case study of southern sea otters. Ecological Applications, 14(5), 2004, pp. 1554–1565.

Kannan, K., N. Kajiwara, M. Watanabe, H. Nakata, N. Thomas, M. Stephenson, D. Jessup, S. Tanabe.  2004.  Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides, and butyltins in southern sea otters and their prey.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(1):49-56.

Kvitek, R., C. Bretz.  2004. Harmful algal bloom toxins protect bivalve populations from sea otter predation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 271: 233–243.

Miller, M., I. Gardner, A. Packham, J. K. Mazet, K. D. Hanni, D. Jessup, J. Estes, R. Jameson, E. Dodd, M. Grigg, C. Kreuder, E. James, A. Melli, P. Crosbie, D. Jessup, J. Boothroyd, D. Brownstein, P. Conrad.  2004.  An unusual genotype of Toxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. International Journal for Parasitology 34:275-284.

Senkowsky, S. 2004.  The oil and the otter: Sea otters clean up after the Exxon Valdez spill- and get sick doing so. Scientific American. May: 30-32.

Tinker, M.T. 2004. Sources of variation in the foraging behavior and demography of the sea otter, Enhydra lutris. Dissertation. University of California, Santa Cruz.

Ballachey, B., J. Bodkin, S. Howlin, A. Doroff, A. Rebar. 2003. Correlates to survival of juvenile sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1992–1993. Can. J. Zool. 81: 1494–1510.

Baskaran M., G. Hong, S. Dayton, J. Bodkin, J. Kelley. 2003. Temporal variations of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in sea otter skull tissue in the North Pacific Ocean. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 64:1–18.

Dubey, J.P. et al. 2003. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals. Veterinary Parasitology 116:275-196.

Estes, J.A., B.B. Hatfield, K. Ralls, J. Ames. 2003. Causes of mortality in California sea otters during periods of population growth and decline. Marine Mammal Science 19(1):198-216.

Estes, J., M. Riedman, M. Staedler, M.T. Tinker, B. Lyon. 2003. Individual variation in prey selection by sea otters: patterns, causes and implications. Journal of Animal Ecology 72:144–155.

Kreuder, C., et al. 2003. Patterns of mortality in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from 1998-2001. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(3): 495-509.

Mayer, K., Dailey, M., Miller, M. 2003. Helminth parasites of the southern sea otter Enhydra lutris nereis in central California: abundance, distribution and pathology. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 53:77-83.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Final Revised Recovery Plan for the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Portland, Oregon. xi + 165 pp. Part 1. Part 2. Part 3. Part 4.

Barnes, Jennifer. 2002. Sea Otter Foraging and Feeding Behaviors: A Review. Prepared for the US Marine Mammal Commission. 27 pp.

Barr, B., L. Lowenstein, F.M. Gulland, P. Conrad. 2002. Evaluation of an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFATE) for demonstration of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondi in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). J. Parasitol. 88(3): 594-599.

Bodkin, J., B. Ballachey, T. Dean, A. Fukuyama, S. Jewett, L. McDonald, D. Monson, C. O’Clair, G. VanBlaricom. 2002.  Sea otter population status and the process of recovery from the 1989 ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 241:237-253.

Carlson, John. 2002. The “otter-man” empires:the Pacific fur trade, incorporation and the zone of ignorance. Journal of World-Systems Research, VIII, III:390-442.

Dean, T.,  J. Bodkin, A. Fukuyama, S. Jewett, D. Monson, C. O’Clair, G. VanBlaricom. 2002. Food limitation and the recovery of sea otters following the ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 241: 255–270.

Larson, S., R. Jameson, M. Etnier, M. Fleming, P. Bentzen. 2002. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries. Molecular Ecology 11:1899–1903.

Larson, S., R. Jameson, J. Bodkin, M. Staedler, P. Bentzen. 2002. Microsatelite DNA and mitochondrial DNA variation in remnant and translocated sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations. Journal of Mammalogy, 83(3):893-906.

Miller, M, I. Gardner, C. Kreuder, D. Paradies, K. Worcester, D.A. Jessup, E. Dodd, M. Harris, J. Ames, A. Packham, P. Conrad.  2002. Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). International Journal for Parasitology 32:997–1006.

Miller, M.A., I. A. Gardner, A. Packham, J. K. Mazet, K. D. Hanni, D. Jessup, J. Estes, R. Jameson, E. Dodd, B. Barr, L. Lowenstine, F. M. Gulland, and P. Conrad.  2002.  Evaluation of an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for demonstration of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondi in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). J. Parasitol.88(3):594–599.

Monson, D.H., et al. 2002. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97(12) 6562-6567.

The Otter Project. 2002. Report of a Workshop to Develop a Research Plan on Chemical Contaminants and Health Status of Southern Sea Otters (Part 1). Proceedings of a workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, 30 Jan. – 1 Feb., 2002. 51 pp.

The Otter Project. 2002. Report of a Workshop to Develop a Research Plan on Chemical Contaminants and Health Status of Southern Sea Otters (Part 2). Proceedings of a workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, 30 Jan. – 1 Feb., 2002. 51 pp.

Aldrich, K., J. Curtis, S. Drucker. 2001.  A cost benefit analysis of Public Law 99-625: Sea otter shellfishery conflicts in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties.  Masters Thesis, University of California at Santa Barbara.

Laidre, K., R. Jameson, D. DeMaster. 2001. An estimation of carrying capacity for sea otters along the California Coast.  Marine Mammal Science 17(2):294-309.



Hatfield, B., J. Estes. 2000.  Preliminary Results of an Evaulation of the Potential Threat to Sea Otters Posed by the Nearshore Finfish Trap Fishery.  U.S.Geological Survey. Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Finfish traps.

Kannan, K., et al. 1998. Butyltin residues in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters. Environ. Sci. Technol 32:1169-1175.

Nakata, H. et al. 1998. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found stranded along coastal California, USA. Environmental Pollution 103:45-53.

Pattison, C., M. Harris, F. Wendell. 1997.  Sea otter, Enhydra lutris, mortalities in California, 1968 through 1993.  Calif.Dept. of Fish and Game.  Marine Resources Division Report: 97-5.

Brody, A.J., et al. 1996. Potential impacts of oil spills on California sea otters: Implications of the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 12:38-53.

University of Michigan 1996 Endangered Species Update

I. Biology and status of the southern sea otter

1. Introduction to the Special Issue: Why Southern Sea Otters? John F. Watson and Terry L. Root

2. Sea Otter Systematics and Conservation: Which are Critical Subspecies? C. Gregory Anderson, John L. Gittleman, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, and Robert K. Wayne

3. Comparative Demography of Sea Otter Populations. James A. Estes, Daniel F. Doak, James R. Bodkin, Ron J. Jameson, Daniel Monson, Jon Watt, and M. Tim Tinker

4. Monitoring the Status of the Wild Sea Otter Population: Field Studies and Techniques. James L. Bodkin and Brenda E. Ballachey

5. Organochlorine Contaminants in Sea Otters: The Sea Otter as a Bio-indicator. Walter M. Jarman, Corinne E. Bacon, James A. Estes, Mary Simon, and Ross J. Norstrom

6. The Risk of Disease and Threats to the Wild Population. Nancy J. Thomas and Rebecca A. Cole

II. Recovery under the Endangered Species Act

7. Overview of the Legislative Mandates and the Agencies Responsible for Implementation of Southern Sea Otter Protection Under the Endangered Species Act. Jamie Rappaport Clark

8. Evaluating Attempts to Reintroduce Sea Otters Along the California Coastline. Carl Benz

9. The Second Southern Sea Otter Recovery Plan. Carl Benz

10. Assessing the Threat of Oil Spills to Southern Sea Otters. Michael L. Bonnell, R. Glenn Ford, and Allan J. Brody

11. Does ‘Sanctuary’ Mean Secure? Rachel T. Saunders

12. The Role of Friends of the Sea Otter in Resource Protection. Ellen Faurot-Daniels and Donald C. Baur

III. The Role of Rehabilitation and Captive Management in Sea Otter Conservation

13. The Role of Rehabilitation in Sea Otter Conservation Efforts. Thomas D. Williams and Terrie M. Williams

14. Oiled Wildlife Care for Sea Otters and Other Marine Animals in California: A Government, University, Private Sector, Non-Profit Cooperative. David A. Jessup, Jonna A. K. Mazet, and Jack Ames

15. Safeguarding Diversity: Challenges in Developing a Genome Resource Bank for the California Sea Otter. Julie A. Long, Shawn E. Larson, and Samuel K. Wasser

16. Sea Otters in Captivity: The Need for Coordinated Management as a Conservation Strategy. E. Jean Brennan and John Houck

17. A Complex Chromosome Rearrangement in the Karyotype of a Wild-Caught Male Sea Otter. Deborah A. Duffield, Jan Chamberlin-Lea, and James E. Antrim

18. The Law Governing Sea Otter Conservation. Donald C. Baur, Allison M. Meade, and Lisa M. Rotterman

19. Estimating the Historical Abundance of Sea Otters in California. Douglas P. DeMaster, Catherine Marzin, and Ron J. Jameson

20. The State of California’s Role in the Conservation of Sea Otters and Other Aquatic Resources. Fred Wendell

21. Saving the Sea Otter Population in California: Contemporary Problems and Future Pitfalls. Glenn R. VanBlaricom



Garrott, R.A. et. al. 1993. Mortality of Sea Otters in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine Mammal Science 9:343-359.

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